A new computer-assisted classification has been recommended by the Spinal Deformity Study Group based on slip grade, pelvic incidence, and sacro-pelvic and spinal balance.
Software enabled observers to identify all 6 types of spondylolisthesis and to identify 7 anatomical landmarks on each radiograph.
Spondylolysis, a break in the vertebra typically in the region of the pars interarticularis, may or may not be associated with a spondylolisthesis.
If the pars defect is bilateral, it may allow slippage of the vertebra, typically L5 on S1, resulting in spondylolisthesis.
A discoidectomy by Cloward's procedure was performed in 73 patients and a corpectomy was done in 64 patients.
Of these, 14 patients with the clinical and radiological evidence of C3-4 level CSM were included in the present study.However, Mihara et al have reported a five times more involvement of the C3-4 level in patients older than 65 years as compared to their younger counterparts., This study assesses the radiological factors contributing to the development of CSM at the C3-4 level; the correlation between the clinical status and the radiological compression; the changes in the cervical curvature after surgery; and, the surgical outcome.In this prospective study carried out between February 1999 and June 2002, a total of 137 patients of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were operated by the anterior approach.Both spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis are often asymptomatic, and the degree of spondylolisthesis does not necessarily correlate with the incidence or severity of symptoms, even when a patient is experiencing back pain.However, these 2 entities have been reported to be the most common underlying causes of persistent low back pain among children and adolescents, despite the fact that most cases are asymptomatic.Erect posture produces a constant downward and forward thrust on the lumbar vertebrae.Stresses on the pars interarticularis are accentuated during repetitive hyperextension, which results in increased contact of the caudal edge of the L4 inferior articular facet with the L5 pars interarticularis.Adam E Perrin, MD, FAAFP, CAQSM Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Family Medicine, University of Connecticut School of Medicine; Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine; Faculty, University of Connecticut Family Medicine Residency Program, Family Medicine Center at Asylum Hill; Medical Director, NCQA-accredited Center for Chronic Care Management, Middlesex Hospital Adam E Perrin, MD, FAAFP, CAQSM is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Medical Quality, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, Connecticut State Medical Society, Society of Teachers of Family Medicine Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.Brian J Shiple, DO Chief, Director of Primary Care Sport, Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine, Division of Sports Medicine, Crozer-Keystone Health Systems Brian J Shiple, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Family Physicians, American Association for Physician Leadership, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Osteopathic Association Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is uncommon at the C3-4 level.Fourteen patients with C3-4 CSM were treated over a period of 3 years.