Familiarize yourself with the various verbs commonly used to introduce quotations.
Here is a partial list: Each verb has its own nuance. Vary the way you introduce quotations to avoid sounding monotonous.
Make sure that the nuance matches your specific aims in introducing the quotation. Here are three common phrasings: In the words of ‘s view, . But never sacrifice precision of phrasing for the sake of variety.
Visit the U of T Writing Website’s page on verbs for referring to sources.
Introducing your quotation with a full sentence would help you assert greater control over the material: The ancient Greeks never saw a need to justify wars that were waged outside the walls of the city state.
In , Hannah Arendt points to the role the Romans played in laying the foundation for later thinking about the ethics of waging war: “we must turn to Roman antiquity to find the first justification of war, together with the first notion that there are just and unjust wars” (12).Instead, set it off as a block quotation: Although Dickens never shied away from the political controversies of his time, he never, in Orwell’s view, identified himself with any political program: The truth is that Dickens’ criticism of society is almost exclusively moral.Hence his lack of any constructive suggestion anywhere in his work. For in reality his target is not so much society as human nature.In these two examples, observe the forms of punctuation used to introduce the quotations.When you introduce a quotation with a full sentence, you should always place a colon at the end of the introductory sentence.He attacks the law, parliamentary government, the educational system and so forth, without ever clearly suggesting what he would put in their places. (416) The full-sentence introduction to a block quotation helps demonstrate your grasp of the source material, and it adds analytical depth to your essay. Long quotations almost invariably need to be followed by extended analysis. Usually you will want to keep the quotation and your analysis together in the same paragraph.Of course it is not necessarily the business of a novelist, or a satirist, to make constructive suggestions, but the point is that Dickens’ attitude is at bottom not even destructive. Hence it is a good idea to avoid ending a paragraph with a quotation.In the following passage, the parenthetical reference to the author does not adequately identify the source: The ancient Greeks never saw a need to justify wars that were waged outside the walls of the city state.“Hence we must turn to Roman antiquity to find the first justification of war, together with the first notion that there are just and unjust wars” (Arendt 12). If you include too much quotation in your essay, you will crowd out your own ideas.Consider quoting a passage from one of your sources if any of the following conditions holds: Condition 3 is especially useful in essays for literature courses.