Literature Review On Autism

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Over the years, numerous studies involving children with autism as the subjects have been conducted and the research findings have allowed researchers to uncover other similarities shared by children with the same condition.

Some of these symptoms include the inability to imitate what others speak, failure to acknowledge the presence of others, the ability to line up or stack objects endlessly, and the ability to memorize trivia (Hall & Graff, 2011, p. The cause of autism is not known yet and researchers are trying to identify whether the disorder is due to a single cause or multiple causes.

The report examined eleven male children who had unusual but similar behavior patterns.

The children also demonstrated the desire to remain alone.

The objective of this literature review is to assess the validity of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD).

Twenty papers were identified that adequately investigated the internal or external validity of various subtypes of ASD.The author was supported in the preparation of this paper by grants from the Ontario Mental Health Foundation and National Health and Welfare, Canada.Schieve and colleagues (2007) define autism as a neurodevelopment disorder characterized by considerable impairment in communication and interactions, as well as unusual stereotyped behavior in children below the age of 3 years (p. Manning, Wainwright and Bennet (2011) argue that children with autism are faced with a big challenge because of the nature of the symptoms the disorder.Autism does not present with a clear etiology and as such, family members of children characterized by developmental disorders tend to report greater stress (Browska & Pisula 2010, p. Also, an autistic child may appear “normal” physically while the symptoms hidden in therein.Majority of the autistic children normally appear to be very attractive and as such, an outside observer may not be able to realize that such a child suffers from a disability at first glance.On the other hand, Asperger’s Syndrome (otherwise referred to as functioning autism) is the least severe.Families of autistic children are faced with unique stressors, in comparison with families in which the children develop normally (Manning et al, 2011, p. For instance, the communication and social deficits of an autistic child can affect the ability of a family to build relationships and interact in conventional ways.The same case also applies to their parents and caregivers (p. Bleuler coined the word “autism” in 1911, while Leo Kanner published the first clinical report on autism in 1973.In his report, Kanner sought to shed light on the cause of autism and how it affects the behavior of children.At least three groups can be distinguished from autism on clinical grounds; an Asperger syndrome subtype, and two atypical subtypes characterized by low IQ and high IQ.However, the evidence that these clinical distinctions carry inferences with respect to etiology, clinical course, and treatment is only suggestive.


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