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Not surprisingly, more than 70% of homework assignments by teachers at all levels of schooling are designed for the purpose of students finishing classwork or practicing skills (Polloway, Epstein, Bursuck, Madhavi, & Cumblad, 1994).Homework in the early grades should encourage positive attitudes and character traits, allow appropriate parent involvement, and reinforce simple skills introduced in class (Cooper, 2007).These discrepancies are just one example of homework communication problems among all parties involved.
The studies have resulted in different time expectations for younger and older students.
Many schools have adopted the 10-minute rule as a general guide for developmentally appropriate time on homework (Henderson, 1996).
Homework represents one research-based instructional strategy linked to student achievement.
However, challenges abound with its current practice.
The findings suggest that the benefits of TIPS intervention in terms of emotion and achievement outweigh its associated costs. Research indicates that in addition to classroom instruction and students’ responses to class lessons, homework is one important factor that increases achievement (Marzano, 2003; Patall, Cooper, & Robinson, 2008).
According to Cooper, homework involves tasks assigned to students by schoolteachers that are meant to be carried out during noninstructional time (Bembenutty, 2011).This paper presents the results of three 2-year longitudinal interventions of the Teachers Involve Parents in Schoolwork (TIPS) homework program in elementary mathematics, middle school language arts, and middle school science.The findings suggest that the benefits of TIPS intervention in terms of emotion and achievement outweigh its associated costs.Some studies conducted on the relationship of time on homework and achievement find that the age of the student moderates the relationship.Specifically, the homework and achievement relationship is stronger and positive for secondary students and negative or null for elementary students (Cooper, 1989; Cooper, Robinson, & Patall, 2006).Issues of purpose and content relate to the next topic, homework design.There are instructional (practice, preparation, participation, and personal development) and noninstructional or nonacademic (Corno & Xu, 2004) purposes of homework (parent-child relations, parent-teacher communications, policy; Epstein & Van Voorhis, 2001).Data on the time students spend on homework vary based on who reports it (Bembenutty, 2009; Hoover-Dempsey et al., 2001; Kitsantas & Zimmerman, 2009; Warton, 2001; Xu, 2009), as do recommendations about sensible requirements for time on homework.Specifically, parents of elementary students have a fair sense of their children’s homework responsibilities, but in the secondary grades, parents often underestimate the frequency of homework assignments and overestimate the time their children spend (Markow et al., 2007).The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of one homework intervention designed to ease some homework tensions between students and families.The Teachers Involve Parents in Schoolwork (TIPS) interactive homework process draws on the theory of overlapping spheres of influence, which stipulates that students do better in school when parents, educators, and others in the community work together to guide and support student learning and development.