Young women living and working in Dagupan speak of the family home in the barrio (village) as "home" and refer to their current residence simply as the place where they stay when in the city.
Of 176 migrants studied in Dagupan, only seven were neither visiting nor sending something to family members elsewhere.
Other income sources may include wage labor in the rural area (including working on the farms of others) as well as migration to seek employment elsewhere.
Migrants may include household heads who work elsewhere on a seasonal basis; for example, many construction workers in the capital city of Manila spend part of the year in rural villages outside Manila.
The find jobs primarily in the urban service economy, working as salesgirls in shops, market vendors, domestic servants, and so on.
When individuals move to a city, they usually remain in contact with family members still in the rural home, and to a considerable extent, continue to see themselves as members of the household in the rural area, even though they are not physically resident there.When migrants visit home, they usually bring pasalubong, or small gifts, including food delicacies and other products not easily available in the barrio.Many also bring more substantial contributions of money or material goods needed by the family.These include food, clothing, and monetary remittances.Of those studied in Dagupan, nearly 50 percent were sending money home, in amounts ranging from less than fifty pesos a year to more than 5,000 pesos.In other cases, remittances are used for investment in education and in agricultural production.A young woman in her early twenties working as a salesgirl was earning 60 pesos a week.In addition, an increasing number of rural people have no access to land at all, either as tenants or owners, and must support themselves and their families by working as hired labor.As a result of this economic situation, rural households often seek out diverse sources of income - farming alone, even for those with access to land as tenants or smallholders, is not sufficient to maintain the family.On the Central Luzon Plain, the primary rice-producing area of the country, rice farmers typically are either tenant farmers or owners of small plots (two or three hectares) of land, and are for the most part unable to produce enough for their family's consumption for the year.Most sell a portion of the rice they produce in order to pay other expenses, and then, later in the year, must buy rice for their families.