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This process starts at the origin of replication where the double helix of the parental DNA is being unwound by the helicase in two separated strands.
The DNA molecule is a double helix: that is, two long, thin strands twisted around each other like a spiral staircase. The rungs are pairs of chemicals called 'nitrogenous bases', or 'bases' for short.
There are four types of base: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C).
The topoisomerase helps relieve the strain by breaking and swiveling the DNA strands ahead of the replication fork.
The primase synthesize a short stretch of RNA called primer, which is the initial nucleotide chain synthesize during DNA replication.
These bases link in a very specific way: A always pairs with T, and C always pairs with G. A gene is a length of DNA that codes for a specific protein. These genes account for only about 3 per cent of our DNA.
So, for example, one gene will code for the protein insulin, which is important role in helping your body to control the amount of sugar in your blood. The function of the remaining 97 per cent is still not clear, although scientists think it may have something to do with controlling the genes.The sex chromosomes determine whether you are a boy (XY) or a girl (XX). The largest chromosome, chromosome 1, contains about 8000 genes.The smallest chromosome, chromosome 21, contains about 300 genes.(Chromosome 22 should be the smallest, but the scientists made a mistake when they first numbered them! The DNA that contains your genes is stored in your cells in a structure called the nucleus.A- DNA replication DNA replication is a biological process by which a molecule of DNA is copied.DNA is also important because it is present in every single cell of our body; it helps in the growth and repair of all the body organisms.Found in all living organisms, nucleus of chromosomes and some viruses, DNA is essential biologically for the life of an individual.Every individual receives a part of his or her DNA maternally and another part from his or her parents.Extracted from a number of sources like blood, saliva, hair, razor clipping, a DNA rest not only helps in understanding genetic relationships but also help a great deal in controlling functions that the cells perform, in turn helping to understand their ancestry.Police investigations in most of such cases rely on the evidence of these DNA reports in order to find out the complete truth behind a relationship mystery because DNA is the most reliable technique to understand the relationship between individuals.Not only is DNA helpful in reveling the genetic reason behind a relationship but it is additionally helpful in carving out a solution for the abolition of these diseases.