In explaining why blacks and Hispanics had disproportionately more violations than whites, De Maio said it was not racial profiling nor was it a case of blacks and Latinos being worse drivers.
Rather it was because police were concentrated much more in "high-crime" areas, inhabited disproportionally by black and Latino residents, rather than in low-crime areas where whites largely reside.
In 2019, as reported by NBC, the Stanford Open Policing Project found that "police stopped and searched black and Latino drivers on the basis of less evidence than used in stopping white drivers, who are searched less often but are more likely to be found with illegal items." The finding emerged from data-mining nearly 100 million traffic stops dating from 2011 to 2017 and recorded by 21 state patrol agencies, including California, Illinois, New York, and Texas, and 29 municipal police departments, including New Orleans, Philadelphia, San Francisco and St. The American Civil Liberties Union reported that in 2014, Florida-resident black drivers received nearly 22 percent of all seat belt citations even though they made up only 13.5 percent of that state's drivers.
Seat belt compliance was 91.5 percent for white drivers versus 85.8 percent for black drivers, a difference too small to explain the different rate of ticketing between black and white drivers.
Spradlin's answer was because of "violent tendencies" adding "I don’t blame" white people for being afraid of blacks "because of their appearance and whatnot, some of them are very intimidating".
Austin Police Chief Art Acevedo found the incident disturbing and put both officers involved under investigation.
In a pretextual stop (also called an investigatory stop), officers pull over people citing a minor issue, then start asking unrelated questions.
University of Kansas professor Charles Epp in a study found that black drivers were three times more likely than whites to be subjected to "pretextual" stops, and five times more likely to be searched during them.
After learning about other African American physicists who have had similar encounters, he writes, "we were guilty not of DWI (driving while intoxicated), but of other violations none of us knew were on the books: DWB (driving while black), WWB (walking while black), and of course, JBB (just being black)." Senator Tim Scott of South Carolina, the only African American Republican in the Senate, spoke on the Senate floor in 2016 about how he experienced racial profiling while driving in his car, adding "I do not know many African-American men who do not have a very similar story to tell -- no matter their profession, no matter their income, no matter their disposition in life." In 2015 comedian Chris Rock posted a series of different pictures on Twitter of himself in the driver's seat of his car while being pulled over by police, captioning one of his posts, "Stopped by the cops again wish me luck." The posts came just a year after racial profiling in the U. CNN's Don Lemon stipulated that "Chris Rock may be in the middle of a case of Driving While Black." Likely referring to the death of Sandra Bland, she spoke about her worries that her nephew might be harmed by a police officer after being pulled over.
The NYTimes documented her post in an article titled "‘I Won’t Be Silent’: Serena Williams on the Fear of Driving While Black." Other prominent African Americans who have recounted their personal experiences of racial profiling include but are not limited to Barack Obama, Johnnie Cochran, Will Smith, Gary Sheffield, and Eric Holder.