A Level Critical Thinking

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Inductive reasoning: If the reasons are true then it is likely that the conclusion is true.

Often there s a lot of evidence in arguments to support reasons which support conclusion.

An easy, quick way of remembering the main credibility criteria: C onsistency Arguments are often presented without using reason indicators. Number of differences Extreme analogies should be avoided as they can weaken an argument In a deductive the conclusion is deductively valid.

Reasons are different to evidence – evidence supports a reason. If the conclusion is not guaranteed to follow from the reasons then the argument is invalid and the argument ceases to be a deductive reasoning.

That is, most teachers are unaware of the levels of intellectual development that people go through as they improve as thinkers.

We believe that significant gains in the intellectual quality of student work will not be achieved except to the degree that teachers recognize that skilled critical thinking develops, only when properly cultivated, and only through predictable stages.Non Sequitur Latin for "it does not follow." An inference or a conclusion that does not follow from the premises,evidence or reasoning given prior.Ad Hominem Latin meaning "against the man." In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas.Appeal to Authority Trying to persuade a reader to accept an argument based on the respect for authority rather than logic.False Dichotomy "either or" Reducing an argument to only two extreme options when there are other possibilities.Sufficient conditions are conditions which, if fulfilled, guarantee that an event will happen.Some people confuse necessary and sufficient conditions.Hasty Generalisation Drawing a general conclusion from insufficient evidence/limited examples.Conflation Putting two or more things together that aren't related. Straw Man Misrepresenting and exaggerating one part of the opponents argument in order to dismiss it and the entire argument.Appeal to History "If something has happened before, it will happen again." Arguing that what has happened in the past is always a guide to the future and/or the past will repeat itself.Appeal to Emotion "These poor puppies have been abandoned and you could give them the loving home they so desperately need." Arguing through tugging at peoples emotions rather than through logical reasoning/argument.


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